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小年到十五 春节天天有讲究

LingoEnglish2018-01-04 06:01:17


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Spring Festival, which falls on the 1st day of the 1st lunar month is the most important festival in China and a time for family reunion, like Christmas in the West.
农历正月初一开始,就到了中国最重要的节日——春节。人们阖家团圆,就如同西方的圣诞节一样。

Traditionally, Spring Festival starts in the early days of the 12th month of the lunar calendar and lasts until the middle of the 1st lunar month of the following year. With the modernization of China, some traditional customs are still followed today, but others have fallen by the wayside.
传统意义上的春节始于农历腊月(即十二月)初,一直持续到来年的正月(即一月)中旬。随着中国的现代化,一些传统习俗被保留了下来,而另一些却逐渐消失在我们的视野中。

As we are preparing for the most important festival, let's have a review of the traditional customs that celebrate the Spring Festival.
在我们忙着准备这个重大节日的同时,不妨来回顾一下春节有哪些传统习俗吧。

腊月二十三:送灶上天

Little New Year, which falls the 23rd day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, is also known as the Festival of the Kitchen God, the deity who oversees the moral character of each household.
农历腊月二十三日是小年,也是祭灶节。灶神在中国神话传说中监管一家善恶。

People make sacrifices to the Kitchen Gold on this day. A paper image is burnt dispatching the god's spirit to Heaven to report on the family's conduct over the past year. The Kitchen God is then welcomed back by pasting a new paper image of him beside the stove.
人们在小年这一天祭拜灶神,焚烧灶神的画像,意味着送灶神上天,禀报这家人在过去一年的德行。接着人们会在灶旁贴上新的画像,意味着再把灶神接回来。

腊月二十四:扫舍去尘

Families undertake thorough house cleaning on the 24th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, sweeping out the old in preparation for the coming year.
农历腊月二十四日,各家各户会进行大扫除扫舍去尘,预示着除旧迎新。

According to tradition, ghosts and deities must choose either to return to Heaven or to stay on Earth during the last month of the year. It is believed that to ensure the ghosts and deities' timely departure, people must thoroughly clean both their bodies and their dwellings, down to every last drawer and cupboard.
根据传统,各路鬼神在农历腊月必须决定自己是返回天庭还是继续留在人间。据说为了确保鬼神及时启程离开,人们必须彻底地沐浴干净、清理住处,哪怕是抽屉柜子也不能疏忽。

 

腊月二十五:推磨做豆腐

People turn the mill and make tofu on the 25th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar, as legend says the Jade Emperor will descend and taste the soybean curd residue to experience an austere life.
农历腊月二十五日,人们推磨做豆腐,因为传说玉帝会在这一日降临人间,品尝豆腐渣,体味人间疾苦。

According to Taoist mythology, the Jade Emperor is the Taoist ruler of Heaven and all realms of existence below, including that of Man and Hell. He is one of the most important gods of the Chinese traditional religious pantheon.
道家神话里,玉帝是道家统治者,管理着天界及以下各界,包括人间和地狱。玉帝是中国传统宗教诸神中最重要的神祗之一。

腊月二十六:杀猪割年肉

The folk saying goes: "butcher a pig and get some meat to prepare for the New Year feast" on the 26th day of the 12th month in the Lunar calendar.
中国有一句俗语:“杀猪割年肉。”农历腊月二十六正是杀猪割年肉的日子。

In the old days, many people could not afford meat and they saved the best for the New Year feast. People's livelihoods have improved greatly and meat is now a very common dish in daily diet, but the Chinese still prefer having meat during festival season.
旧时许多人买不起肉,所以就把一年中最好的东西留到新年团圆饭吃。如今人们的生活质量得到了极大的改善,一日三餐里肉食已经再常见不过,但春节期间人们仍然钟爱肉食。

腊月二十七:宰鸡赶集

People kill chickens and go to market to buy provisions for the Spring Festival on the 27th day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar. With the approach of the Lunar New Year, Chinese people prepare ingredients and food they need for the New Year feast. Chicken is an indispensible dish.
腊月二十七是人们动手杀鸡、上市场打年货的日子。农历新年即将到来,中国人开始准备新年团圆饭所需的食材,而鸡肉是必不可少的一道菜。

腊月二十九:上供请祖

On the 29th day of the 12th lunar month people visit the graves of their ancestors to honor their memory. It is said Spring Festival originated in the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600 BC-c. 1100 BC) from the people's sacrifice to gods and ancestors at the end of an old year and the start of a new one.
腊月二十九,人们动身扫墓,拜祭祖先。据说春节始于商朝(公元前1600年至公元前1100年),那时人们在辞旧迎新之际祭祀神灵和祖先。

大年三十:除夕守岁

Chinese people are supposed to stay up the whole night on the 30th day of the 12th month in the Lunar Calendar
腊月三十,人们熬夜守岁。

In Chinese mythology, a monster called nian would come out to harm people on New Year's Eve, so people get together, staying up and chatting, hoping for a peaceful passage of time. The custom of staying up (Chinese: shou tai sui) symbolizes the warding off of all diseases and disasters and wishing good luck in the New Year.
中国神话里,一头叫“年”的妖怪会在新年的前一夜跑出来伤害人类,因此人们聚在一起,守岁聊天,祈祷能平安度过这一晚。因此,中国人将新年前夕熬夜的习俗称为“守太岁”,意味着远离疾病灾祸,祈祷新年好运。

Chinese people attach great importance to the Spring Festival Eve, when all family members eat dinner together.
中国人十分重视除夕(即新年前一夜),彼时阖家团圆,共享团圆年夜饭。

大年初一:金鸡报晓

The first day of Chinese New Year, also known as the "day of chicken", officially begins at midnight.
午夜零点时分,人们正式跨入新年第一天,也叫“金鸡报晓”。

It is traditional to light firecrackers and make as much of a din as possible to chase off the evil monster nian.
传统习俗是,人们会燃放鞭炮,尽可能制造大的喧闹声赶走邪恶的妖怪“年”。

Most importantly the oldest and most senior members are visited with the visits strengthening family kinship.
最重要的习俗是,人们会拜访家中最年长的长辈,以加强家人之间的亲情。

Senior members of the family hand out red envelopes containing cash (Chinese: ya sui qian), a form of blessing and to suppress aging and the challenges of the coming year, to junior members of the family, mostly children and teenagers.
而家中的长辈会给晚辈(主要是儿童和青少年)红包(中国人称之压岁钱),代表着对晚辈的祝福,也是祈祷自己在来年身体康健、万事如意。

大年初二:金吠报春

On the second day, married daughters usually go back to their own family to visit parents, relatives and close friends. Traditionally, married daughters didn't have the opportunity to visit their birth families frequently.
初二,出嫁的女儿会回娘家给父母、亲人和密友拜年。旧时,女儿出嫁后拜访娘家父母的机会并不多。

Some believe the second day is also the birthday of all dogs and remember them with special treats.
还有一些人认为初二是所有犬类的生日,因此要给它们好吃的以示庆祝。

大年初四:三羊开泰

The old saying "three rams bring bliss" is connected with the fourth day, which says that by making a good beginning a happy end comes.
初四则和俗语“三羊开泰”有关,意思是岁首吉利就预示着岁末幸福。

According to folklore, it is also the day to welcome back the Kitchen God. On this day, the Kitchen God would check the household and therefore people should not leave home.
民间还传说这一日是迎回灶神的日子。这一天灶神会清点每家的人数,所以切忌外出离家。

正月十五:夜照田蚕

The 15th day of the 1st lunar month is commonly celebrated as Yuan Xiao Jie, or Lantern Festival. The festivities of the Chinese New Year reach a climax on this day.
正月十五一般被称为元宵节或者灯节,中国新年庆祝活动在这一天达到顶峰。

Since early morning, dragon and lion dancers parade on streets crowded with people. In the evening families go out together to enjoy the full moon and appreciate colorful lanterns and also solve lantern riddles.
一大早,街上就挤满了人群,观看舞龙舞狮。晚上,全家人会一同外出享受满月,欣赏缤纷多彩的灯笼,一起猜灯谜。

Chinese people also eat yuan xiao, a traditional food made of glutinous rice flour which symbolizes family togetherness and reunion.
人们还会吃一种由糯米做成的传统美食——元宵,寓意阖家团圆。

This day officially marks the end of Chinese New Year celebrations.
这一天往往为中国新年庆祝活动划上句点。

图文来源:爱思网

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